Cyclosporine is one of the active pharmaceutical ingredients commonly used to treat conditions like psoriasis. It is basically a kind of immunosuppressant drug, which is used after organ transplants to decrease immune system activities. This medicine helps to reduce risks associated with rejection of organs during transplants.
Typically, cyclosporine is derived from a soil sample originating in Norwegian countries. The main active pharmaceutical ingredients are known as Ciclosporin A and this is a kind of peptide comprised of 11 kinds of amino acids. These peptides are primarily produced by fungi called Tolypocladium inflatum Gams. These fungi are comprised of various D kinds of amino acids. These types of amino acids are not found much in nature.
Cyclosporine works by binding to proteins found inside T-lymphocytes. This substance helps to curtail calcineurin. This substance usually activates interleukin-2 transcription. It also helps to curtail production of lymphokine substances as well as release of interleukin. This effect of the drug and its associated active pharmaceutical ingredients help in inhibiting the functions of T-cells, which are predominantly effectors. However, the advantage is that these do not have any effect on cytostatic activities.
Various side effects maybe noted during the intake of Cyclosporine. Some common ones include ADRs or Adverse Drug Reactions or ADIs (Adverse Drug Interactions). If you have consumed the juice of grapefruit and are taking Cyclosporine, you may experience side effects. Other common side effects due to the intake of Cyclosporine’s active pharmaceutical ingredients include convulsions, hyperplasia of the gums, fever, peptic ulcers, confusion, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, diarrhea, numbness, pruritis, tingling sensations, rentention of potassium in the body, high pressure of the blood, hyperkalemia, liver and kidney malfunctioning as well as being more prone towards viral and fungal infections. In essence, cyclosporine can induce hepatotoxicity as well as nephrotoxicity in the body.
Instead of taking Cyclosporine directly, an alternative known as ciclosporin G can be less harmful. The active pharmaceutical ingredients in this alternative drug are in a smaller proportion. Thus, this drug can be less nephrotoxic compared to the regular Cyclosporine. Compared to the Cyclosporine A variety, this G version has a different position of amino acid second type. The alpha aminobutyric acid is also replaced by L-nor-valine.
The active pharmaceutical ingredients such as Cyclosporine are commonly marketed under trade names of Neoral (used as a microemulsion form) and Sandimmune (original formulation). These are from the brand Novartis. Other medicines found in the market containing Cyclosporine include Gengraf, Cicloral etc. Since the year 2002, there has been an emulsion formulation of the drug, which is applied topically. This is used for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis. The trade name for this drug is Restasis.
The drug Cyclosporine and its active pharmaceutical ingredients are also used for dog preparations. This medicine used on dogs is marketed by the brand Novartis and has the trade name of Atopica. It is used to treat atopic dermatitis found in dogs. In these dog preparations the concentrations of these active pharmaceutical ingredients are lesser, resulting in fewer effects.